Paediatrics is the specialty that studies children from birth through adolescence. It involves the monitoring of their development, their physical, mental and emotional health and the social and environmental aspects that can affect them. It includes the prevention and diagnosis of the diseases that can develop, and the establishment of the most appropriate treatment.
Several periods are distinguished in paediatrics: neonatal (first four weeks), unweaned (1-24 months old), preschool (1-6 years), school (6-12 years) and adolescent (12-18 years), with each stage requiring rigorous control by their paediatrician.
It is desirable that parents are well informed, know the main stages of child growth and maturation, and that they are advised appropriately on the child care needed at each stage of development. It must be kept in mind that each child is a special case, which has its own characteristics and some unique needs that cannot be extended to others. Therefore, the best source of information, providing greater assurance, is the paediatrician who controls the child month by month, year by year and monitors its evolution step by step, knowing the child and its family environment.