This provides information on the sperm quality: number, motility and appearance (morphology). It evaluates semen coagulation, viscosity, colour, pH and agglutination, as well as the volume of the sample. Additionally, the sperm are counted and their motility and speed are measured.
Depending on the results of these basic tests, the specialist may want to investigate further with additional diagnostic tests.
Further investigations in men
Visit to the Andrologist
If any abnormality is detected in the initial semen analysis, a visit to the Andrologist (doctor specialising in male reproduction) is recommended.
Motile sperm concentration (MSC)
In the laboratory, the patient's semen sample is treated in a particular way to ascertain the total number of sperm with correct motility.
This is especially useful for choosing the best assisted reproduction technique in cases of male infertility.
Hormone and immunological analysis
We usually measure FSH, which is the best indicator of testicular function.
- Immunological: HBsAg / HC Ab / RPR / HIV Ab
Karyotype consists of taking a blood sample to ascertain each individual's chromosome pattern.
Testicular Doppler Ultrasound scan
The testicular Doppler ultrasound is an ultrasound scan to rule out varices and the presence of other masses such as testicular cysts, hydroceles, etc.
Sperm DNA Fragmentation
We study the sperm DNA integrity in cases of:
- Repeated miscarriages
- Pregnancy failure after several infertility treatments
- Males aged over 45
- History of high fever
Sperm Fluorescent in situ Hybridisation (FISH)
This test is done to rule out abnormalities in the number of sperm chromosomes.
Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)
Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) or testicular biopsy is a simple surgical procedure that involves obtaining small samples of testicular tissue for differential diagnosis of Azoospermia, or in cases of obstruction of the vas deferens, to obtain a sperm sample for infertility treatment.
CFTR Gene Test (Cystic fibrosis)
This test is performed if there is a medical history of Cystic Fibrosis on the male side of the family, or in cases of azoospermia due to congenital absence of the vas deferens.